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February 27 2014

February 07 2014

Uruguayan ‘Asado', Much More Than Just a Barbecue

asado4

Photo published by Jorge Alonzo on Flickr, under Creative Commons licence (CC BY-SA 2.0)

When we think of Uruguayan cuisine, one iconic dish always comes to mind: the ‘asado‘, or barbecue. But this is more than just a traditional dish, it represents the country's whole identity.

This dish is an icon of Uruguayan and Argentine tradition par excellence, acting as a social linchpin, as one of the most strongly rooted customs and as a symbol of friendship. No-one, or nearly no-one, prepares a barbecue for themselves alone. The barbecue is a reason to meet, an excuse for a get-together, to bring together those who are separated for whatever reason.

On Vimeo, Geoff Stellfox shares a brief video of a traditional Uruguayan ‘asado':

The ‘asado’ is also a cause of rivalry between opposite shores of the Río de la Plata. Both Argentines and Uruguayans boast of having the best barbecue in a debate as varied as there are palates in the world.

The daily newspaper El País [es] comments:

Los argentinos dicen que son ellos los que hacen el mejor asado, a veces nos reconocen que tenemos mejor carne (excepto el bife de chorizo que es argentino por unanimidad), nos matamos por la mejor receta del chimichurri, nos reímos de los mexicanos que cocinan a la llama y descalificamos a los porteños que cocinan con carbón.

The Argentines claim that they are the ones who make the best barbecue, they do occasionally admit that we have better meat (except the ‘bife de chorizo’ which is Argentine by definition), we batter each other over the best recipe for ‘chimichurri‘ [a special sauce for the meat], we laugh at the Mexicans who cook in the flame and we dismiss the Porteños who cook using charcoal.

When we speak of the barbecue, we are not necessarily referring to a mere lump of cooked meat, but rather to all the paraphernalia which surrounds it, the different kinds of meat and vegetables so that everybody feels included, whether they are meat-eaters or vegetarian. The fire which brings people together and protects them also has a central role, as it has done since the dawn of humanity.

In the absence of a grill, many households have substituted the typical grilled barbecue [es] for the oven-baked barbecue in their daily cooking. This option is considered a second-best by connoisseurs of the ‘asado', but it is easier to work in to the daily life of Uruguayan families. In order to simplify the dish's preparation still further, the well-known chef Sergio Puglia [es] even suggests a barbecue with salsa criolla [es] made in the microwave on his website.

xczxc

Photo published by Bruno Maestrini on Flickr, under Creative Commons licence (CC BY-SA 2.0)

The role of the barbecuer -'asador’ in Spanish- is fundamental to this social event, transforming them into the architect of the feast and to a certain extent, into a master of ceremonies. The barbecuer is the one who takes the lead in this dish, the one who manages the timing and signals when and how to savour their work. The skill of the barbecuer determines the quality of the barbecue and if they are successful, they will receive praise and applause. However, if they get it wrong they will be the target of taunts and reprimands, until they manage to redeem themselves with another barbecue which meets expectations.

The traditional midday barbecue held on construction sites constitutes another iconic moment in the life of the dish. This is a ritual for construction workers who gather to eat together, regain strength to continue working and strengthen the brotherly bonds which make it easier to work and live together during these tough working days.

xcvzxczx

Photo published by Nae on Flickr, under Creative Commons licence (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Besides the traditions and the friendship, there is also a veil of mystery surrounding a good ‘asado'. Each barbecuer has their secrets and their own particular way of preparing the meat, which gives each barbecue its unique and unrepeatable taste. Even if these secrets were to be revealed, it would still be impossible to repeat as the barbecue is much more than just a dish, it is a magical moment to be shared.

In Uruguay, but above all in Montevideo, the majority of gastronomic venues are specialised barbecues [es] or they have the barbecue as an option on their menu.

The daily newspaper El Observador [es] visited one of these venues to reveal the secrets for making the best Uruguayan ‘asado’ [es]:

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February 04 2014

How Italian Gnocchi Became a Monthly Mealtime Tradition in Latin America

Ñoquis. Foto de simenon en Flickr, bajo licencia Creative Commons (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Gnocchi. Image by Simenon on Flickr. Used under a Creative Commons license (CC BY-SA 2.0)

[All links lead to Spanish-language pages unless otherwise noted.]

In Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay, eating gnocchi on the 29th of every month is a popular tradition. No one knows for sure where or how this custom came about, but many bloggers have dedicated posts to the culinary habit and published recipes explaining how to make gnocchi.

The blog Sección del por qué went back to the 8th century

La tradición de servir ñoquis los dias 29 nace de una leyenda que se remonta al siglo VIII. Vivía entonces en Nicosia (Asia Mayor) un joven médico llamado Pantaleón, quien, tras convertirse al cristianismo, peregrina por el norte de Italia. Allí practicó milagrosas curaciones por las que fue canonizado. Cierta ocasión en que pedía pan a unos campesinos , estos lo invitaron a compartir su pobre mesa. Agradecido, les anuncia un año de pesca y cosechas excelentes. La profecía se cumplía y otros muchos milagros. San Pantaleón fue consagrado -a la par de San Marcos- patrono de Venecia. Aquel episodio ocurría un 29, por tal razón se recuerda ese día con una comida sencilla representada por los ñoquis. El ritual que lo acompaña de poner dinero bajo el plato simboliza el deseo de nuevas dádivas.

The tradition of serving gnocchi on the 29th of each month comes from a legend dating back to the 8th century. Back then, in Nicosia (Greater Asia) a young doctor named Pantaleon, who went on a pilgrimage through northern Italy after converting to Christianity. There, he performed miraculous healings for which he was canonized. Once, when he asked peasants for bread, they invited him to share their humble table. Grateful, Pantaleon declared they would have a year of excellent harvest and lots of fishing. The prophecy was fulfilled and many other miracles. Saint Pantaleon was consecrated – along with Saint Marcos – as the patron of Venice. That episode occurred on a 29th, therefore that day is remembered with simple food such as gnocchi. The accompanying ritual of putting money under the plate symbolizes the desire for new gifts.

Carambolatango offered her favorite story: 

Durante la Guerra de Europa, en Italia, escaseaban los alimentos entonces. El gobierno repartía bonos que eran cambiados por comida en los expendios. Las familias más numerosas se veían en serias dificultades para alimentarse y llegar a fin de mes. Nace la solidaridad entre  las personas y los vecinos invitaban a comer  noquis, (que era siempre considerada comida para los pobres) a las familias más grandes. Debajo de cada plato les ponían un bono y este regalo permitía que estos grupos pudieran cambiarlos por comida y llegar a fin de mes - 

In Italy, during the war in Europe, food was scarce. The government would give out bonds to exchange for food in the market. Larger families had serious difficulties getting food and making it to the end of the month. Solidarity was born among people and neighbors invited larger families to eat gnocchi (which was always considered food for the poor). Under each plate, people would put a bond and this gift allowed these families to exchange the bond for food and to make it to the end of the month. 

Alejandra Moglia from the blog Chocolate y Frambuesa added even more history for gnocchi:

Hay otra historia que cuenta que hacia 1690, en un pueblo de Piamonte, se perdió la cosecha de trigo. Si bien la papa sólo la usaban para alimentar a los animales, era tan grande la miseria que la cocinaron, la mezclaron con harina y dieron origen a los ñoquis.

There is another story going back to year 1690 in a small town from Piamonte, where the wheat crop had been spoiled. Even though potatoes were used to feed the animals, misery was so rampant that [potatoes] were cooked for eating and mixed with flour, and that is how gnocchi originated. 

Nuria Eme from Cuaderno de recetas published a recipe and added:  

[...] se suelen comer los días 29 de cada mes, y por lo visto el origen  (de esta versión, pues hay varias)  es, que por ser uno de los últimos días del mes, las personas que tenían pocos recursos y cobraban a primero de mes, tenían que ingeniárselas para comer con alimentos hechos con materia prima barata. Y claro, ya sabemos que la papa y la harina, no son excesivamente caros. Y aunque la tradición es antigua, creo que por desgracia, es extrapolable en el tiempo, y totalmente actual con las circunstancias que nos ha tocado vivir.

[...] gnocchi is usually a meal for the 29th of each month, and so it seems that its origin (at least this version, there are many others) is because it is the end of the month and people have less resources and get paid at the beginning of the next month. So they have to be creative to make it to the end of the month by using less expensive ingredients. Potatoes and flour are not expensive. Even though the tradition is very old, it can be extrapolated over time and fit in perfectly with the circumstances in which we are living now.

Claudia Calizaya showed in a video how she prepares them:

But this tradition goes beyond meals. In Argentina, “gnocchi” is a nickname for public employees and those who do not go to work but still appear every 29th to get their paycheck.  

Legend or tradition, this custom continues to stand the test of time in the southern hemisphere. If you do not know how to make them yet, take a look at another recipe from the blog From Argentina With Love [en].

January 20 2014

Uruguay Among 10 Most Ethical Destinations for Fourth Consecutive Year

Foto publicada por Brennan Paezold en Flickr, bajo licencia Creative Commons (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Photo published by Brennan Paezold on Flickr, under Creative Commons license (CC BY-SA 2.0)

According to the prestigious publication Ethical Traveler, Uruguay has made the list for the fourth consecutive year of the ten most ethical destinations in the world.

Every year the Ethical Traveler team, after exhaustive research, chooses the ten best countries to visit in the developing world, choosing destinations with attractive natural landscapes and cultures. These countries must also demonstrate a commitment to the conservation of their natural resources. These selections are aimed at recognizing the efforts of these countries and encouraging neighboring countries to follow their example.

Tourism has become one of the world’s main industries, but it can have a negative impact on the host communities and ecosystems, so the World Tourism Organization has created a Global Code of Ethics for Tourism, a list of “do's and don't” that aims to improve lives and protect the planet through responsible tourism.

Many nations have accepted this code through their tour operators, redirecting their tourism industry practices to ensure the welfare of travelers, host communities, tourism workers and the environment.

Uruguay is one of the countries that has channeled its tourism in this direction and this has earned it recognition for the fourth consecutive year. This has placed it in the top 10 ethical destinations in the world in 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014.

This distinction is considered a prize for the efforts by the players in the Uruguayan tourism industry who have signed the commitment to adhere to the code of ethics of the World Tourism Organization, as noted in the Viaje a Uruguay [es] portal.

Meanwhile, the news was received and published in a short article on the website of the Ministry of Tourism and Sports [es].

The rest of the countries chosen for 2014 are the Bahamas, Barbados, Cape Verde, Chile, Dominica, Latvia, Lithuania, Mauritius and Palau.

December 16 2013

Uruguay Becomes a “Sanctuary for Whales and Dolphins”

Fotos de

Photo shared by @PaipoUruguay on Twitter.

[Links are to Spanish-language pages.]

In September, Uruguay adopted law 19.128, which designates the country's territorial waters as a “sanctuary for whales and dolphins.” The law applies not just to the territorial sea but also to the economic zone that is exclusive to Ururguay and prohibits the chasing, hunting, catching, fishing, or subjecting of cetaceans to any process by which they are transformed. 

It also includes a prohibition against the transportation and unloading of live whales and dolphins, irrespective of whether the vessels sail under Uruguayan or foreign flags. The law envisages penalties for those who do not comply. Exceptions will be made for scientific and medical cases, providing they are approved by state authorities. The law also takes into account cases of harassment, aggression, or any other mistreatment that could lead to the death of cetaceans. 

The law was unanimously approved by the legislature and was promulgated on September 13 by President José Mujica.

The new legislation strengthens Uruguay's existing conservation policies, implemented by the Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fisheries (MGAP) and by the National Directorate of Aquatic Resources (DINARA). The Director of DINARA, Daniel Gilardoni, declared to the government publication Presidencia that: “For our country the biggest threat is shipping, a good deal of the beaching is due to collisions between whales and ships.”

The newly designated whale and dolphin sanctuary in Uruguayan waters will be economically beneficial, according to an article entitled “Uruguay sanctuary for whales and dolphins: Let the cetaceans come to me” on the blog Ballenas en Uruguay [Whales in Uruguay].

The cybersphere lit up with favourable reactions to the passing of the law. Social media reflected widespread approval to Uruguay's new status as a “sanctuary for whales and dolphins.”  

Last year, user Jana (@Piper_uy) contributed to the campaign to promote the bill on Twitter:

Click to support the creation of a sanctuary for whales in Uruguay  http://t.co/N7x1uVMN

In October of the same year, according to the journalist Lourdes Vitabar (@louvitabar), several different school groups assembled outside the Legislative Palace: 

At nine o'clock schoolchildren from Maldonado and Rocha (sponsored by Paez Vilaró) are going to the Legislative Palace to promote the whale sanctuary bill

The National Party representative from the Rivera deparment Gerardo Amarilla (@GerardoAmarilla), anticipated the success of the bill in March of this year:

The Whale and Dolphin Sanctuary was approved today in the House of Representatives and will pass in the Senate where it could become law.

Animales Sin Hogar (@ASHcomUY) [Animals Without Homes] celebrated the news when the law was approved in September; at the same time, however, it mourned the death of a beached whale in the Colonia district:

On the one hand we celebrate this wonderful news about the creation of a sanctuary for our whales and dolphins…. http://t.co/DTtyd0hXVQ

For more information on the continuing conversation about Uruguay's marine ecosystem, you can follow the Organization for Cetacean Conservation (OCC) on Facebook and Twitter.

December 14 2013

Uruguayan Trade Union Federation Backs Launch of Worker-run Airline

alas-uruguay

Photograph published by Jimmy Baikovicius on Flickr under a Creative Commons licence (CC BY-SA 2.0)

[Links to English language web pages are indicated by [en]; all other links lead to Spanish language web pages]

The Uruguayan national trade union federation PIT-CNT [en] has come out in support of the new Alas Uruguay [en] airline by investing union resources into the project after the airline's launch suffered numerous setbacks.

The PIT-CNT (Intersyndical Plenary of Workers–National Convention of Workers) has shown its solidarity with Alas Uruguay due to its status as an autonomously administered company consisting of ex-workers of the previously state owned airline PLUNA [en]. With the Uruguayan government no longer able to meet the airline's growing debts, Pluna was liquidated in mid-2012 after 76 years of service. 

However, in November of this year the Supreme Court of Justice ruled that the law allowing for the liquidation of Pluna, which saw seven of the its aeroplanes handed over to trustees and special treatment awarded to certain creditors, was unconstitutional. As a result, Alas Uruguay’s plan to buy three of the seven Bombardier planes held by trustees has returned to Earth with a resounding thud after the court’s ruling led to the suspension of a previously approved loan by the development fund FONDES.    

As Alas Uruguay officially state on the website of Portal de Américas in the article “Alas Uruguay rompe el silencio” [Alas Uruguay break the silence], this has delayed the awarding of mandatory certificates from the National Civil Aviation and Aviation Infrastructure Directorate which could further hinder the airline’s launch and leave workers unable to meet the numerous financial commitments made in recent months. 

Maintenance of the aeroplanes has been carried out by ex-employees of Pluna with the aim of keeping them operative as even a short break in upkeep leads to the withdrawal of airworthiness certificates. This would result in an immediate fall in their sale price.

In addition to the failed attempt to purchase the three aircraft, Alas Uruguay has already registered as a Public Limited Company having incorporated its managerial staff. According to statements made by the company, office spaces have already been let, bank accounts have been opened, documents have been submitted for the insurance of aircraft (including to Uruguay’s state owned insurance company), websites have been designed and telephone services put in place. Furthermore, the General Manager recently made a presentation before an International Forum on aviation and preliminary talks were underway with national and international service providers.

One particularly worrying detail, however, is that by not finalising the creation a new airline, the government has to continue to pay workers unemployment benefit for a period of two years in order to cover expenses and loss of income. Estimates suggest that this could end up costing the government in excess of US $20 million without any chance of the sum being recovered.

Leo Pintos (@huesopintos) ironically tweeted:

Uruguay 2030: Alas Uruguay workers demand unemployment benefit for ten more years.

Jose Pedro Urraburu (@urraburu), on on the other hand, declared himself against continuing to pay income support:

#Plunagate and its baby #AlasU: The state shouldn’t be paying unemployment benefits to merged companies. Pay layoffs, now

Despite accusations, workers have stated that they are financially committed to Alas Uruguay, alongside PIT-CNT who have also made guarantees for the realisation of the project. Furthermore, workers of Alas Uruguay have given 25% of their salary to the company as a means of financing the venture.

With regards to the Pluna aeroplanes, if these are not subject to constant maintenance then were they to be sold it would be for a drastically lower price than the US $15 million per plane previously agreed with Alas Uruguay.  

The Minister of Economy and Finance, on the other hand, has stated that he is not aware of any law that allows for the state to act as guarantor for a private company in which it does not have an active participation. Indeed, the Uruguayan government is already paying a fee of US $8 million every six months to Scotiabank in its role as guarantor of the seven Bombardier planes that were acquired by the former Pluna CEO, Matías Campiani [en], in 2008. Consequently, if Alas Uruguay does not keep up with its payments then the government would be liable to Pluna’s creditors thus creating a type of ‘double guarantee’ on the same aeroplanes.

The Uruguayan president, José Mujica, in a recent speech spoke about the possibility of the government financing the venture, saying: “I would ask that people have a little bit of heart because the PIT-CNT is even offering part of its monthly income as a guarantee. The Government, if it can, will take that step.”

The senator Alfredo Solari (@senadorsolari) commented on this statement, saying:

Mujica: “People should have a little bit of heart over Alas Uruguay” In the meantime, we’re all paying for it.

In their article “Alas Uruguay más cerca del despegue” [Alas Uruguay, closer to take off], the tourism website TurisUY stressed the importance of this project in kick starting the local tourist industry while also benefiting Uruguayan travellers who are currently paying over the odds for airfares.

The upshot of the closure of Pluna and the delay to the launch of Alas Uruguay has been reflected in an increase in airfares for flights to and from Carrasco International Airport [en] which has ended up benefiting BQB [en], a rival airline run by the Argentine entrepreneur Juan Carlos López Mena who, coincidentally, has since been implicated in Alas Uruguay's failed attempt to buy the Pluna aircraft.

The economist and broadcaster Laura Raffo (@lauraraffo) commented on a photograph published by the Uruguayan newspaper El Observador in which López Mena and his son Juan Patricio can be seen lunching with the Minister of Economy and Finance, Fernando Lorenzo, and Hernán Antonio Calvo Sánchez, the vice-president of the Spanish airline Cosmo, saying:

Great photos of the López Mena – Lorenzo lunch!! Some surprised faces and some poker faces :)

One of the leading newspapers in Uruguay, El País, in their article “Aerolínea de López Mena sumó 56 vuelos tras el cierre de Pluna” [López Mena’s airline adds 56 flights after closure of Pluna], claim that in “the year and a half since the closure of Pluna, López Mena has not only expanded his river transport business [en] [that connects Uruguay to Argentina] but has also seen a significant growth in his airline business.”

The official Twitter account of Alas Uruguay responded by saying:

businessmen like this should be sent back to their country with their tail firmly between their legs. Obviously after having been arrested!!!

December 12 2013

Uruguay Legalizes the Sale and Production of Marijuana

marihuana

Photo shared on Twitter by @T13.

With just the votes of the governing Broad Front left-wing coalition, and after 12 hours of intense debate, the Uruguayan Senate has passed a bill legalizing marijuana. The bill to regulate and commercialize marijuana was approved at 22:38 on Tuesday 10th December, 2013.

The decision has put Uruguay on the front pages of international news media following the session with great interest. Now, all that remains is to craft regulations and put the proposed bill into force. A four month period has been allowed for this process.

At a grassroots level, the parliamentary decision has made waves and stirred up opinion. Among the opposition's arguments given in the Senate are the difficulties in ensuring compliance with the law, and the argument that it isn't a valid strategy in the battle against drug trafficking. The opposition also suggested that, in contrast to the government's position on the subject, the law will actually encourage drug use.

Uruguayan pharmacies, who will be in charge of marijuana sales for medicinal use, are now involved in an intense controversy [es] in which some wish to sell the drug while others do not.

The UN, for its part, has noted that the Uruguayan bill to legalize marihuana violates international treaties that the country has signed. In addition, the Psychiatric Society of Uruguay has warned [es] about the consequences of using marihuana and its rising popularity among youths. Psychiatrists also told newspaper El País that the drug plays a role in school drop-out rates.

According to information collected by Infobae [es], Uruguay's president, José Mujica, has said that he hopes Uruguay will be “lend a hand and that we all learn together, because the idea isn't to establish Uruguay as the land of free marijuana. No. No. That's not what this is about. This is a plague, just like cigarettes are a plague. You'll be offered a legal portion and if you abuse it, you'll be registered and attended to medically.”

Internationally, the bill has generated both expectations and doubts, as the world has observed the events with interest and expressed concerns following the decision.

Opinions have been expressed in social networks such as Twitter. The presidential candidate for the conservative National Party, Jorge Larrañaga (@jorgewlarranaga), said:

For security and health; marijuana, for freedom; a new media law. For education; nothing. The majority is used for whatever purpose.

The user @charruasomos, on the other hand, has defended the bill:

[In response to @NicoleOrtizCh's tweet] [The world's gone crazy, they legalize marijuana en Uruguay.  Where are we headed?]

@NicoleOrtizCh Well, to me it seems like a GREAT STEP FORWARD and takes drug traffickers out of the picture. Uruguay's not a country that runs away from its problems.

The Paraguayan television presenter, Lucía Sapena (@LuSapena), complained about international confusion about their two nations:

I've now had to explain to three foreign friends that Uruguay is where they sell marijuana legally, and not Paraguay!  Confused people.

The Venezuelan Yusnay Bleque (@yusnayb) expressed her thoughts on the bill:

Uruguay becomes the first country in the world to legalize marijuana. Just shocking. They don't think about people's health.

The Argentinian activist Alex Freyre (@AlexFreyre) compared the bill with Argentina's laws:

Marijuana ISN'T HARMLESS, so IT HAS TO BE REGULATED. The current Argentinian law 23737 is useless and encourages drug trafficking.

Rubèn Jorge Castro (@elojodelciudada) tweeted about moves to legalize marijuana and same sex marriage:

The minority imposed same sex marriage on us, the minority imposed [the] marijuana [bill] on us, and while that happens, they become distracted and education [reform] falls to pieces. More equal. More stupid.

On the other hand, in Luis Alberto Borsari‘s opinion, the same sex marriage act, legalization of abortion, and now, the legal production and distribution of marijuana are causes of pride. In his blog [es] he writes that:

cuando nuestros hijos y nietos estudien todo esto en sus Libros de Historia, los imagino sacando pecho por lo hecho hoy, o cantando “Uruguay es el mejor País…”

I imagine our children and grandchildren all puffed up with pride as they study today's events in their history books, or singing “Uruguay's the best…”

December 11 2013

Uruguay Becomes First Country to Legalize Marijuana Market

Uruguay's Senate voted 16 to 13 to legalize the production and sale of marijuana. President Mujica is expected to sign the law, which would become effective starting next year.

I'm in favor of legalizing marijuana, but it would be great to make headlines around the world because of our security and education.

Ignacio de los Reyes, the BBC's Argentina and Southern Cone correspondent, tweeted on December 10:

Stay tuned for more citizen reactions.

October 24 2013

This Weekend at Developing Latin America 2013 Apps Challenge (Part II)

Foto obtenida del set en Facebook de Desarrollando América Latina.

Photo from Desarrollando América Latina Facebook page.

We continue the virtual tour of the countries participating in the third edition of Desarrollando América Latina [Developing Latin America]-#DAL2013. (See the first part here.)

Bolivia's [es] envisioning meeting took place a few weeks ago and they were also preparing for Demo Day. And although the organizers have not been very active on social networks, [es] they have been virtually supporting participants.

Learn about social issues to be worked on in Bolivia during #DAL2013

Tired of your work being a machine?

The people of Chile [es] are among the most enthusiastic about #DAL2013:

Preparation for #dal2013 in Chile :)

Learn more about the first #DAL2013 Chile workshop on Flickr

Days from hackathon #DAL2013 Chile! Check out what we've done so far

In Chile, preparations for the close of a successful day. #DAL2013 participants creating real solutions!

We share the Dynamic Management workshop at #DAL2013. Don't forget Oct. 26 is the end.

In Argentina [es] there have been a couple of preparatory meetings, but the actual hackathon will be the 25th of this month:

This Thursday at 19:30h will be the preview of #DAL2013, join in to think about technological solutions with social impact

And so we start Argentina's #DAL2013.  Crazy photos

The presentations of the projects begin

Argentina presents the projects for #DAL2013. Follow it live here

Click here to see the #DAL2013 Argentina projects

#Dal2013 Argentina is the hackathon where there are more girls than programmers

It is the first time [es] that Paraguay [es] is participating in a DAL event and expectations are high:

The day has arrived! #DAL2013 in Paraguay is a reality! Thanks to all for the support and effort, now all that remains is….

Paraguay. Day 1. Just started

In Paraguay #DAL2013 is not over! The teams continue developing!

There is still enthusiasm and will for @dalparaguay. The second day of #DAL2013 has been amazing!

talking about the environment in Paraguay :)

In Uruguay [es] there is once again a month dedicated to open data and the following tweets are only part of all the activity going on in Montevideo:

In Uruguay, the expedition is in development. The data is an unknown universe!

Subgroups present the results of the Data Expedition at the #OktoberDATAFEST

Thank you for the beautiful note about the #OktoberDATAFEST

Starting the #OktoberDATAFEST

This goes to show that anybody can participate in a hackathon!

And Brazil [es] is fulfilling its schedule of activities with a view towards Demo Day on this October 26.

The schedule of activities for the Brazilian edition of #DAL2013 has been published. Check it out, share it, and sign up!

This is #DAL2013 Brazil. Tomorrow 10 other countries have their turn.

We are on the third day of #DAL2013. Developers energetically brewing up ideas!

DAL Brazil 2013 Day 1 video

Prototype Saturday at DAL2013 Brazil

This has been a quick panorama of the activities in 12 Latin American countries participating in #DAL2013, but this isn't all that has happened; the central organization of #DAL2013 has been organizing and coordinating workshops for the participants, and many have had thoughts about Developing Latin America:

Open government isn't just transparency, it's openness to prioritize, create and implement policy and tools WITH its citizens

In a few minutes, a presentation of @EscuelaDeDatos, #DAL2013 and data scraping will begin. There will be a hangout 

What's cool about #DAL2013 is the interest generated by developers to create social solutions, hopefully it will be a success!

This October 26 at our Demo Day you can find out the results of #DAL2013. Stay tuned for more details!

We will soon bring you more updates about this year's Developing Latin America.

October 23 2013

16 Books on Latin American Street Art

In Latin America, street art is of major cultural relevance. The region’s traditions of social movements and revolution have allowed the form to give voice to otherwise unheard sectors of the population. Of course, not all street art is politically or socially-oriented in content, but it does often provide insight into specific objectives and ideals.

Nick MacWilliam from Sounds and Colours browsed the online store Amazon “to see what’s readily available for those who are interested in the subject of street art in Latin America.” He recommends 16 books on the subject, covering Haiti, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Colombia, Mexico, Argentina and more.

September 27 2013

Developing Latin America 2013: An ‘Apps Challenge’ for Social Impact

flyer_inscripciones

“Developing Latin America”

Fundación Ciudadano Inteligente is about to launch a new edition of their regional initiative entitled Developing Latin America [es], which brings together the efforts of developers, social specialists, and others to use open data to create applications that serve the Latin American community. In their own words [es]:

Impulsamos aplicaciones innovadoras, sustentables, escalables y de alto impacto social. Celebramos a la comunidad de emprendedores, tecnólogos, desarrolladores y diseñadores, desafiándolos a trabajar en conjunto con sus gobiernos y organizaciones locales para co-crear soluciones que generen un cambio positivo para los ciudadanos. Fomentamos una cultura de creatividad, innovación y emprendimiento en América Latina.

We promote innovative, sustainable, and scalable applications with a high social impact. We celebrate the community of entrepreneurs, technologists, developers and designers, challenging them to work together with their governments and local organizations to co-create solutions that generate a positive change for citizens. We foster a culture of creativity, innovation, and entrepreneurship in Latin America.

For its third edition, Developing Latin America (DAL) is transforming and is going from being a Hackathon to what they call an Apps Challenge, meaning a longer event with the goal of developing better ideas, obtaining more concrete solutions, and, as such, achieving applications that are more sustainable and scalable.

But, what is an Apps Challenge? [es]

Un Apps Challenge es una competencia entre aplicaciones. En el caso de DAL, es una competencia colaborativa que se realizará a lo largo de tres intensas semanas de desarrollo. Esta etapa está diseñada para dotar a los equipos de las herramientas que permitan desarrollar una aplicación innovadora y disruptiva. Realizaremos varias actividades con el objetivo de generar aplicaciones de alto impacto social.

An Apps Challenge is a competition between applications. In the case of DAL, it is a collaborative competition that will be held over the course of three intense weeks of development. This stage is designed to give teams the tools that will allow for the development of an innovative and disruptive application. Various activities will take place with the goal of generating applications of high social impact.

compartamos-ideas

“Let's share idea and work together to develop Latin America!”

DAL officially launches on October 5 of this year, and we say officially because in reality the coordination of DAL and the different teams in charge of the event in the participating countries (now 12) have been working on preparing for it for several weeks. In fact, each team has planned various activities [es] to take place in their country during the month of October and, on October 26, there will be a Demo Day in addition to the selection of the three best applications per country.

But that is not all. After this phase, in association with Socialab, a project accelerator specialized in high impact social projects, will choose five teams among the winners to build up their projects for three months, helping them construct a business plan and find funding, among other things:

  • Co-creación “en terreno” con sus potenciales usuarios y clientes.
  • Definición de áreas de impacto que el proyecto tendrá en la sociedad, estos son co-creados con la comunidad y usuarios en trabajos en terreno.
  • Capacitarse en metodología de innovación y emprendimiento (Lean Start-Up, Canvas Business Model, Design Thinking, etc.)
  • Búsqueda de financiamiento para la sustentabilidad de sus proyectos a través de distintos medios: inversionistas, crowdfundings, fondos concursables, entre otros.
  • Generación de redes con distintos actores relevantes para el proyecto.
  • Planes comunicacionales y financieros elaborados.
  • Co-creation “in the field” with their potential users and clients.
  • Definition of areas of impact that the project will have in society, these are co-created with the community and users in field work.
  • Training in innovation and entrepreneurship (Lean Start-up, Canvas Business Model, Design Thinking, etc.)
  • Finding funds for sustainability of their projects through various means: investors, crowd funding, competitive funds, among others.
  • Generating networks with various stakeholders relevant to the project.
  • Elaborating communication and financial plans.

To learn a bit more about what DAL will be like this year and familiarize ourselves with the Apps Challenge process, our collaborator, Elizabeth Rivera, met with Anca Matioc, Regional Coordinator of Developing Latin America. Below is a video [es] of the interview:

In the interview, Matioc expanded on DAL's decision to go from a Hackathon, typically 36 hours, to an Apps Challenge, which will span a period of three weeks. As a response to DAL's growth over the past two years, Matioc highlighted the desire to have participants go beyond making prototypes for applications by giving them the opportunity to create more efficient and finished apps for social change. With the Apps Challenge, which she described as an “extended hackathon”, each of the twelve participating countries will have its own agenda of activities and workshops, culminating in the Demo Day and Socialab nominations. Currently, DAL is continuing its preparations for the event and meeting with its stakeholders to discuss their roles as mentors for each team of participants.

DAL has already generated interest in the region. For example, ALT1040 reports on the event and says [es]:

Este tipo de programas son ideales para impulsar pequeñas startups que pretenden resolver problemas comunes de la región. Lo interesante es que las aplicaciones pueden estar enfocadas tanto en solucionar un problema de tu país como hasta solucionar uno de Latinoamérica en su totalidad. Un reflejo de que podemos y queremos cambiar el mundo en el que vivimos, aunque tengamos que hacerlo una aplicación a la vez.

These types of programs are ideal for inspiring small startups seeking to resolve common problems in the region. The interesting thing is that the applications can be focused on solving a problem in your country as well as solving one in Latin America as a whole. A reflection on the idea that we can and want to change the world we live in, even if we have to do it one application at a time.

El Becario from the Código Espagueti blog reflects [es]:

Sin duda, un gran reto para países en los que no todos tienen un smartphone o una tableta, aún así se trata de un gran esfuerzo que bien podría ayudar a mejorar las condiciones de vida en la región.

Without a doubt, a big challenge for countries where not everyone has a smartphone or tablet; still, it is a great initiative that could really help improve living conditions in the region.

If you are a developer and are interested not only in a professional challenge but simultaneously having the opportunity to help solve social problems in your city or country, such as education, health, public safety, and transportation, among others, you can sign up [es] until October 4 and participate in this event on a regional level.

On our behalf, we will be providing coverage of the details of this great initiative.

Other related posts:

2011
Developing Latin America – 30 hours of technology and society [es]
“Developing Latin America”: Open Data Projects

2012
Developing Latin America 2012
What Exactly is a Hackathon? And What is Open Data?
Developing Latin America Draws Near!
Day 1 of Developing Latin America 2012
Day 2 of Developing Latin America 2012
Winning Applications From Latin America's Biggest Hackathon

Praise and Criticism for Uruguay's Proposed Media Law

The bill, which has received the praise of several journalism and freedom of expression organizations, is not as controversial as the one recently approved in Ecuador or as contentious as the one currently in the hands of Argentina’s Supreme Court.

However, it is not without its critics. While it has been lauded for its intention to set limits to media concentration and guarantee spaces for independent content, critics say some of its provisions are broad, ambiguous and overreaching.

Travis Knoll provides an overview of Uruguay’s proposed media law in The Knight Center's Journalism in the Americas blog.

August 06 2013

Uruguay One Step Closer to Legalizing Marijuana

Uruguay's House of Representatives has approved a bill to legalize and regulate the production, distribution and sale of marijuana. If approved by the Senate and signed by President Jose Mujica, Uruguay would become the first country in the world to legalize marijuana.

Under the bill approved by the House, “the government would be allowed to sell marijuana,” as BBC News reported on August 1, 2013:

The state would assume “the control and regulation of the importation, exportation, plantation, cultivation, the harvest, the production, the acquisition, the storage, the commercialisation and the distribution of cannabis and its by-products”.

Buyers would have to be registered on a database and be over the age of 18. They would be able to buy up to 40g (1.4oz) per month in specially licensed pharmacies or grow up to six plants at home.

But the bill faces “fierce opposition”, as The Economist explained in a piece titled “The Experiment“:

A poll last month found 63% against, and opponents claim that consumption will rise. But its supporters argue that drug prohibition has caused more problems—in the form of organised crime and the risks of clandestine consumption—than the drugs themselves.

The Economist also published an article explaining the bill.

Photo shared by @CannabisMagazin on Twitter.

Photo shared by @CannabisMagazin on Twitter.

The debate started last year, when the Uruguayan government unveiled its plan to decriminalize the controlled sale of marijuana.

The debate has continued online, as citizens and analysts from Uruguay and abroad consider the implications of legalizing marijuana.

On Twitter, Seba Sánchez (@SebaSanchezuy) [es] referred to recent moves by Uruguayan lawmakers on abortion and same-sex marriage:

I remind you that you are part of a unique moment. Laws on abortion, same-sex marriage and marijuana. It happens here.

While Alejandro Figueredo (@afigue2010) [es] pointed out public opposition to the bill:

Something should be noted about those who push for and vote for the bill regulating marijuana. They cared very little about the peoples’ opinion.

Carlos Aloisio in the blog Razones y personas: repensando Uruguay [es] (Reasons and people: rethinking Uruguay), wrote that the regulation of marijuana is “a solution, not a panacea.” Carlos looked into the national debate over the bill and argued [es] that many Uruguayans don't support the bill because “it puts us in the uncomfortable situation of choosing between two evils”:

Por un lado, esto implica aceptar que tenemos un problema, y que estamos en la peor situación. Por otra parte, también implica reconocer que la regulación es una solución, pero está muy lejos de ser una panacea. La literatura internacional sobre el tema reconoce la ausencia de soluciones o recetas universales al problema, y admite de hecho que no hay diseños óptimos. La solución para Uruguay será algo que iremos descubriendo juntos a medida que ganemos conocimiento y experiencia en el problema. Pero, para hacer esta búsqueda posible, el primer paso es regular.

On the one hand, this means accepting that we have a problem, and that we are in the worst situation. On the other hand, it also means recognizing that regulation is a solution, but it is far from a panacea. The international literature on the subject recognizes the absence of universal solutions or prescriptions for the problem, and admits that indeed there are no optimal designs. The solution for Uruguay will be something that we will discover together as we gain knowledge and experience about the problem. But to make this search possible, the first step is to regulate.

In Asuntos del Sur [es], Chilean analyst Eduardo Vargas wrote about Uruguay's bill and what it means for drug legalization in the region. He concluded [es]:

El desafío para Uruguay es grande. Ser pionero no es fácil. Sin embargo, el éxito de esta política también depende del resto de América Latina. Urge que el resto de países inicien revisiones profundas a sus leyes de drogas y tomando la experiencia uruguaya, junto con la de los estados de Colorado y Washington, finalmente piensen, diseñen y ejecuten políticas de drogas más humanas, serias y responsables. Es el momento para que nuestra región se sume a la visión y pragmatismo que llevará al país de Pepe Mujica a liderar con responsabilidad, con una regulación responsable.

The challenge for Uruguay is great. Being a pioneer is not easy. However, the success of this policy also depends on the rest of Latin America. Other countries need to initiate major revisions to their drug laws taking into consideration the Uruguayan experience, along with that of Colorado and Washington states, to finally think, design and implement more humane, serious and responsible drug policies. It's time for our region to join the vision and pragmatism that will lead the country of Pepe Mujica to lead responsibly, with responsible regulation.

August 02 2013

Abre Latam: Developers and Solutions for the Region

Abre Latam [es], an event on Open Data and transparency in Latin American governments that took place in Montevideo, Uruguay on June 24 and 25, did not only bring together hackers and civil society activists from Latin America, along with other people from the region interested in spreading open data and the applications that use them, but also organizations and people from other parts of the world with the same interests.

For example, Alla Morrison, writing for the Open Data blog at the World Bank comments on what she had in mind before the event took place:

Does open data have economic value beyond the benefits of transparency and accountability? Does it have the power to fuel new businesses and create new jobs? Does it have the potential to improve people's lives by powering new services and products? If so, what should the World Bank be doing to help this along? These were questions we had in mind as we set out to bring together open data entrepreneurs from across Latin America for an Open Data Business Models workshop in Montevideo, Uruguay.

Logo-Abre-Latam-700

Abre Latam: An open meeting for an open region

As mentioned in a prior post, people from the Open Knowledge Foundation were present to launch the Spanish version of School of DataEscuela de Datos [es]. They had previously been in Santiago and Buenos Aires and their mission was to promote the launch of the School of Data, but also to try to find and meet the people that participate and drive the topic of open data. According to what they wrote in their blog, it was a magnificent experience:

The initiative [Escuela de Datos] was received enthusiastically and we’re looking forward to see the network grow. [...] After the two intense days all of us left with big smiles and new ideas in our minds. Big congratulations to the team at DATA for organising the event and bringing together such a great group of people from all around the region!

Foto de la página de Facebook ABRE LATAM

Photo from the ABRE LATAM Facebook page

Jen Bramley, of MySociety.org, one of the organizations present that is dedicated to developing software that will empower people in their civic and democratic aspects (FixMyStreet, for example), wrote that “it was extremely interesting to hear the social, cultural, and political experiences of other people in relation to technology,” and also mentioned that:

For me, the most important part was seeing the projects other people work on to strengthen transparency, citizen participation, and civil liberties in their own countries. It’s a humbling experience to realise that some things we take for granted are the subject of intense campaigning in other countries. Each day we had a series of workshops around different topics. I facilitated one, trying to learn what people want from open source technology to make it more globally usable.

Javier Ruíz of the Open Rights Group, an organization dedicated to defending freedom of expression, privacy, innovation, creativity, and consumer rights on the Internet, believes that it is interesting that among the attendees at Abre Latam there was a genuine concern that open data was not only playing with technological toys. He also wrote about his participation in the event:

ORG’s proposed session on privacy brought up many interesting examples of conflicts and difficult choices. Among others we heard of exam results being published in Mexico and the electoral register with Google indexed photos in Argentina. The consensus was that the privacy and open data nexus is very important but we lack the framework to analyse it. This is particularly complicated with the diversity of legal and cultural contexts we find in different countries. Many activists asked for more information and capacity building.

Foto de la página de Facebook ABRE LATAM

Photo from the ABRE LATAM Facebook page

Although Fabrizio Scrollini is Uruguayan and a member of D.A.T.A., one of the organizers of Abre Latam, he wrote a post in English as a guest for the Sunlight Foundation's blog, where he makes a series of reflections on the event as well as on the state of open data, transparency, and open government in the region. Among other things he says:

Community matters. This is hardly a surprise but community can mean different things. Indeed people are interested in open data for all sorts of reasons, but when it comes to a particular area or group of datasets, and the aim is social change, the need for different skills and common goals becomes crucial. Some of the greatest sessions were about how to link the different worlds of technology, communication, policy and social problem solving. Open data (or the lack of it) is sometimes a great excuse to put minds together working to achieve better outcomes.

Susannah Vila, a Global Voices collaborator, kept a live-blog for TechPresident, which she begins with a bit of history about the initiatives with open data in the region:

When Ciudadano Inteligente was launched back in 2011 it was perhaps the only initiative in the region using technology to enhance civic information, engagement and transparency. That same year a regional hackathon, Desarrollando America Latina, was created. Soon after, a community of civic technologists that rivals Chile’s emerged in Mexico, and then in Argentina, Perú, and elsewhere. Uruguay’s DATA launched less than a year ago. As bellwethers like Ciudadano Inteligente grow, and newer projects emerge, a convening designed to consider what has worked and what hasn’t is propitious. It’s also the first of its kind for the region, where civic technologists have come together (plenty) for hackathons, but never to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the hackathon and open data projects.

Foto de la página de Facebook ABRE LATAM

Photo from the ABRE LATAM Facebook page

In another post, Susannah identifies three tendencies that emerged in Abre Latam to answer the question: How do we engage the right people at the right time to use data from the government and turn it into policies for lasting change?

1. Top-Down Solutions: Donor-funded strategies that bring technologists together with NGOs, journalists, activists and other interested groups.
2. Bottom-up solutions: Workshops that develop political autonomy and engagement at the grassroots level.
3. Realistic Solutions: Engage deeply with niche groups.

In conclusion, we are sharing a quote from the blog of Raquel Camargo, a Brazilian journalist who attended the event and also presented the project where she works, Movimento Minas [pt]. After writing about the initiatives that impressed her the most, she reflects the following:

A mensagem que fiquei com todos esses projetos é que, quem quer faz. A grande parte desses projetos contam com poucas pessoas, mas muita vontade. São independentes, são alimentados de determinação e ideologias. Dinheiro? Nem sempre rola. Mas tem paixão no meio. Isso é, para mim, emocionante e faz total sentido ao momento do Brasil. A gente quer mudança? Então vamos fazer a mudança. Esse pessoal aí sabe o que é isso.

The message that all of these projects gave me is that, whoever wants to, does it. A big part of these projects have very few people, but a lot of will. They are independent, they are fed by determination and ideologies. Money? Not always. But passion is in the middle. That is, for me, exciting and makes a lot of sense in Brazil's present moment. We want to change? Then let's make the change. These people here know what that is.

Foto de la página de Facebook ABRE LATAM

Photo from the ABRE LATAM Facebook page

Related post:

Abre Latam, an Open Conference for an Open Region.

Original post published on Juan Arellano's Globalizado [es] blog.

June 20 2013

ABRE LATAM: Open Data and Transparency Unconference

Fernando Briano from Picando Código informs [es] about the upcoming unconference ABRE LATAM [es], organized by D.A.T.A. [es] and Ciudadano Inteligente [es], on June 24 and 25 in Montevideo, Uruguay. The event hopes to “bring together representatives of different sectors of Latin American civil society who work with Open Data on issues like transparency, citizen participation and the extension of civil liberties.” You can follow them on Twitter [es] and Facebook [es].

April 27 2013

#FLISOL 2013: Hundreds of Latin Americans Installing Free Software

Flisol 2013 Banner.

Flisol 2013 Banner.

From the Patagonia to Havana, hundreds of computer users across Latin America are choosing freedom over control by installing free software on their computers. On April 27th, groups of free software enthusiasts will be installing free software in dozens of cities across Latin America as part of FLISOL [es], the Latin American free software installation festival.
(more…)

April 11 2013

Uruguay Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

Uruguay has become the second Latin American country to legalize same-sex marriage.

Lawmakers in Congress passed the bill, which defines marriage as “the permanent union between two people of the same or opposite sex,” by a wide margin on April 10, 2013, with 71 of 92 votes in favor. The country's upper house of the Senate approved the proposal last week.

President Jose Mujica, who has pushed for the bill, is expected to sign it into law in the next two weeks.

Uruguay is now the 12th country in the world to approve same-sex marriage and the second in the region after Argentina, which legalized it in 2010.

Supporters gathered inside and outside the legislative palace to celebrate. Journalist Fabian Cardozo shared a picture of crowds cheering after the vote:

Photo shared by Fabian Cardozo (@facardozo) on Twitter.

Photo shared by Fabian Cardozo (@facardozo) on Twitter.

The Movement for Popular Participation, a political party that belongs to the ruling left-wing party Broad Front, shared a photo album [es] on Facebook with more pictures.

Photo shared by Movimiento de Participación Popular on Facebook.

Photo shared by Movimiento de Participación Popular on Facebook.

Twitter users from other countries congratulated and thanked Uruguay for the move, such as Pedro Zerolo (@Pedro_Zerolo) from Spain:

Thank you, Uruguay. 12th country to approve equal marriage. Photo shared by @Pedro_Zerolo on Twitter

Thank you, Uruguay. 12th country to approve marriage equality. Photo shared by @Pedro_Zerolo on Twitter.

Netizens also shared reactions under the hashtag #matrimonioigualitarioUY (equal marriage Uruguay) [es].

Uruguayan Twitter user Teodora (@t_odora) [es] wrote:

@t_odora: hoy fue de esos días q hay q festejar sin cuestionarse, la lucha da resultados, el trabajo de hormiga vale la pena #matrimonioigualitarioUY

@t_odora: today was one of those days that you have to celebrate without questioning yourself, the struggle brings results, hard work pays off #matrimonioigualitarioUY

While musician German Bernardez (@GodFatter) [es] shared:

@GodFatter: A partir de hoy me siento todavía mas orgulloso de ser uruguayo. Uruguay aprueba el #MatrimonioIgualitarioUY Un país cada día mas justo

@GodFatter: Starting today I feel even prouder to be Uruguayan. Uruguay approves #MatrimonioIgualitarioUY. A fairer country every day.

User @colowolman [es] added:

@colowolman: La verdad es que ya era hora que el Parlamento hiciera algo que pueda mejorar esta sociedad #matrimonioigualitariouy

@colowolman: The truth is that it is about time that the Parliament does something that can improve this society #matrimonioigualitariouy

Despite positive responses online and on the streets, not everyone in the country was celebrating. El Espectador reported [es] that the Catholic Church in Uruguay argued that “the law is ‘a further setback’ in a legal system that ‘has founded its existence’ on the ‘respect and protection’ of the family institution, a ‘constitutional basis of our society.’

February 27 2013

Innovation Cities Americas Index 2012-2013

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City innovation classifications and rankings 2012-2013 for USA, Canada and South America.

World’s largest city classification and global ranking with 117 Americas cities (86 USA, 14 Canada, 17 South America)  from 450 benchmark cities classified, and with top cities ranked in 2012. Based on 2thinknow analysis of cities on 162 city indicators from 2thinknow City Benchmarking Data program. Established 2007.

2012-13 INDEXES > TOP 100 | AMERICAS | EUROPE ASIA | EMERGING | GLOBAL | ALL YEARS

View current Media Release + Read the 2012-2013 FAQ

Global Rank City State Country Region Sub Region Classification Index Score 1 Boston Massachusetts United States AMERICAS USA 1 NEXUS 57 1 New York New York United States AMERICAS USA 1 NEXUS 57 4 San Francisco Bay Area California United States AMERICAS USA 1 NEXUS 56 10 Seattle Washington United States AMERICAS USA 1 NEXUS 54 11 Toronto Canada AMERICAS CANADA 1 NEXUS 54 12 Los Angeles California United States AMERICAS USA 1 NEXUS 54 22 Washington DC District of Columbia United States AMERICAS USA 1 NEXUS 52 23 Philadelphia Pennsylvania United States AMERICAS USA 1 NEXUS 52 26 Chicago Illinois United States AMERICAS USA 1 NEXUS 52 31 Montreal Canada AMERICAS CANADA 1 NEXUS 50 35 Vancouver Canada AMERICAS CANADA 1 NEXUS 50 39 Dallas-Fort Worth Texas United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 49 43 Austin Texas United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 49 48 Raleigh-Durham North Carolina United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 49 49 San Diego California United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 49 50 Orlando Florida United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 49 51 Portland Oregon United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 48 52 Minneapolis-St Paul Minnesota United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 48 57 Denver Colorado United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 48 60 Houston Texas United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 48 61 Atlanta Georgia United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 48 62 Miami Florida United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 48 64 Newark New Jersey United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 47 65 Baltimore Maryland United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 47 67 Quebec Canada AMERICAS CANADA 2 HUB 47 77 Santa Ana-Anaheim California United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 47 79 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 47 81 Kansas City KO/MO United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 47 83 Tampa Florida United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 47 87 Richmond Virginia United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 46 90 Ann Arbor Michigan United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 46 93 Mexico City Mexico AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 2 HUB 46 98 Providence Rhode Island United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 46 106 Manchester New Hampshire United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 46 107 Las Vegas Nevada United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 46 109 Berkeley California United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 46 110 Tallahassee Florida United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 46 113 Rochester New York United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 46 114 Jacksonville Florida United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 46 118 Sao Paulo Brazil AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 2 HUB 45 121 Ventura-Oxnard California United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 123 Boulder Colorado United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 124 Edmonton Canada AMERICAS CANADA 2 HUB 45 125 Boise Idaho United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 126 Phoenix Arizona United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 128 Buffalo New York United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 129 Colorado Springs Colorado United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 130 Albany New York United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 131 Spokane Washington United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 132 Roanoke Virginia United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 San Antonio Texas United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 Des Moines Iowa United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 Memphis Tennessee United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 Nashville Tennessee United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 Calgary Alberta Canada AMERICAS CANADA 2 HUB 45 Charlottesville Virginia United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 Charlotte North Carolina United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 Norfolk-Virginia Beach Virginia United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 Sacramento California United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 Salt Lake City Utah United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 44 Oklahoma City Oklahoma United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 44 Cleveland Ohio United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 44 Birmingham Alabama United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 44 Milwaukee Wisconsin United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 44 Riverside California United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 44 Savannah Georgia United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 44 St Louis Missouri United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 44 Rio De Janeiro Brazil AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 3 NODE 44 Oakland California United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 44 Fort Lauderdale Florida United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 44 Honolulu Hawaii United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 44 Hartford Connecticut United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Springfield Massachusetts United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Stockton California United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Tucson Arizona United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Bakersfield California United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Fresno California United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Detroit Michigan United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Grand Rapids Michigan United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Rochester Minnesota United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Charleston South Carolina United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Green Bay Wisconsin United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Madison Wisconsin United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Corpus Christi Texas United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Syracuse New York United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Greensboro North Carolina United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Allentown Pennsylvania United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Wichita Kansas United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Cincinnati Ohio United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 42 Bridgeport Connecticut United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 42 Montgomery Alabama United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 42 Lancaster Pennsylvania United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 42 Buenos Aires Argentina AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 3 NODE 42 Modesto California United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 42 Indianapolis Indiana United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 42 New Haven Connecticut United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 41 El Paso Texas United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 41 Augusta Georgia United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 41 Monterrey Mexico AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 3 NODE 41 Springfield Illinois United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 41 Louisville Kentucky United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 41 New Orleans Louisiana United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 41 Columbus Ohio United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 41 Baton Rouge Louisiana United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 41 Cedar Rapids Iowa United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 40 Omaha Nebraska United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 40 Albuquerque New Mexico United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 40 Toledo Ohio United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 40 Chattanooga Tennessee United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 40 Hamilton Canada AMERICAS CANADA 3 NODE 40 Little Rock Arkansas United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 40 Winnipeg Canada AMERICAS CANADA 3 NODE 40 Halifax Canada AMERICAS CANADA 3 NODE 40 Ottawa Canada AMERICAS CANADA 3 NODE 40 Curitiba Brazil AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 3 NODE 40 Greenville South Carolina United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 40 Brasilia Brazil AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 3 NODE 40 Lexington Kentucky United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 40 Tulsa Oklahoma United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 40 Jackson Mississippi United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 40 Medellin Colombia AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 3 NODE 40 Kitchener Canada AMERICAS CANADA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Springfield Missouri United States AMERICAS USA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Bozeman Montana United States AMERICAS USA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Reno Nevada United States AMERICAS USA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Fredericton – St John New Brunswick Canada AMERICAS CANADA 4 INFLUENCER 39 London Canada AMERICAS CANADA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Winston-Salem North Carolina United States AMERICAS USA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Knoxville Tennessee United States AMERICAS USA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Panama City Panama AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Puebla Puebla Mexico AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Columbia South Carolina United States AMERICAS USA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Moncton New Brunswick Canada AMERICAS CANADA 4 INFLUENCER 38 Anchorage Alaska United States AMERICAS USA 4 INFLUENCER 38 Akron Ohio United States AMERICAS USA 4 INFLUENCER 38 Salvador Bahia Brazil AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 38 Dayton Ohio United States AMERICAS USA 4 INFLUENCER 37 Belo Horizonte Brazil AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 37 Recife Pernambuco Brazil AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 37 Lincoln Nebraska United States AMERICAS USA 4 INFLUENCER 37 Bogot Colombia AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 37 Pachuca Hidalgo Mexico AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 36 San Jose, Costa Rica Costa Rica AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 36 San Salvador El Salvador AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 36 Cordoba Argentina AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 36 Guadalajara Mexico AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 36 Porto Alegre Brazil AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 35 Caracas Venezuela AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 35 Valpara¡so Valpara¡so Chile AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 35 Santo Domingo, DR Dominican Republic AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 35 Quito Ecuador AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 5 UPSTART 34 Santiago Chile AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 5 UPSTART 34 Lima Peru AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 5 UPSTART 33 Montevideo Uruguay AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 5 UPSTART 31 Havana Havana Cuba AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 5 UPSTART 31 Tegucigalpa Honduras AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA – 29 San Juan Puerto Rico AMERICAS USA – 28

Innovation Classifications.

All cities are graded into award categories based on their band score. In descending order of importance to the innovation economy:

NEXUS: Critical nexus for multiple economic and social innovation segments

HUB: Dominance or influence on key economic and social innovation segments , based on global rends

NODE: Broad performance across many innovation segments, with key imbalances

INFLUENCER: Competitive in some segments, potential or imbalanced

UPSTART: Potential steps towards relative future performance in a few innovation segments.

Regional Classifications.

Regions are defined as follows:

AMERICAS: North and South America

EUROPE: The U.N. defined Europe with European union, Western Russia, Israel and some Turkish cities

ASIA: Asia and Oceania (Australia/NZ)

EMERGING: Mid-East, Africa, Turkey and Caucasus states.

There are further sub regions divisions since 2012, and the Index can also be analyzed this way.

Full details.

Purchase City Benchmarking Data: All data for a single city or a mix of indicators to compare cities.

Read the analyst city report to understand the underlying framework and thinking.

Or select a Service Package for a package of analysis on cities.

Methodology in brief.

The Index is the most comprehensive city ranking and scoring. Each city was selected from 1,540 cities based on basic factors of health, wealth, population, geography as well as potential relative to peers. The final 450 cities had data extracted the city benchmarking data program on 162 indicators, and this was reduced to 445 published cities. Each of the benchmarking data was scored by analysts using best available qualitative analysis and quantitative statistics (see City Benchmarking Data to purchase city data).

Underlying data was then balanced against current global trends, by analysts to form a simplified 3 factor score for Cultural Assets, Human Infrastructure and Networked Markets. For city classification, these scores were competitively graded into 5 bands (Nexus, Hub, Node, Influencer, Upstart) based on how broad based (multiple indicators) the city performance was.

The top 30% of cities in the Nexus and Hub were ranked by analysts based on comparison of current innovation potential.

From this global Index 4 regional indexes for Americas, Europe, Asia and Emerging are then also produced.

Please note the full list above is classified (Node, Influencer, Upstart) not ranked except where a rank is noted. Rankings are just for general information. A node ranking is considered globally competitive. More discussion and questions answered in this  FAQ.

For more details on methodology, please see the FAQ or order the Innovation Cities Analysis Report.

Reproduction of this list.

The indexes and supporting materials are copyright and used under license by 2thinknow. You may reproduce the statistics and indexes in any reasonable form, graphics, or data mash-up as long as you attribute it to 2thinknow and do not modify the numbers or otherwise mislead. The easy correct way to do this is as follows:

Source: 2thinknow Innovation Cities™ Index 2012-2013: www.innovation-cities.com [or the link of the page you are referencing]

2thinknow do reserve all rights, including the right to ask content to be removed.

About 2thinknow Innovation Cities™ Program.

Based in Melbourne Australia, 2thinknow are the world’s first innovation agency. Established 2006 we have  designed original  models to measure and deliver innovation to cities, business seeking new markets and growth, and NGO/government clients.

2thinknow Innovation Cities™ Program to provide powerful tools for creating an innovation economy. This includes the City Benchmarking Data™ details on cities by segment globally, recently launched local innovation forum events, analyst reports such as the flagship Innovation Cities™ Analysis Report. In the Innovation Course, we are teaching our clients new innovation methods and practices. 2thinknow work with other clients through innovation consulting, analyst reports, projects  and innovation services, as well as a number of online resources and groups.

2thinknow have published the Innovation Cities™ Indexes city rankings free online since 2007.

This is now 445 cities in the 2012 year, and is the world’s largest and most diverse city ranking.

Contact 2thinknow here: http://www.innovation-cities.com/wp-content/uploads/Form-Innovation-Cities-2012-02.html or via twitter @2thinknow

Tags: 2012 By Region By Year Current Index North & South America Alabama Alberta Albuquerque Ann Arbor Argentina Arizona Arkansas Atlanta Augusta Austin Baltimore Belo Horizonte Birmingham Bogotá Boise Boston Boulder Bozeman Brasilia Brazil Bridgeport Buenos Aires Buffalo Calgary California Canada Cedar Rapids Charleston Charlotte Charlottesville Chattanooga Chicago Chile Cincinnati Cleveland Colombia Colorado Colorado Springs Columbus Connecticut Cordoba Curitiba Dallas-Fort Worth Denver Des Moines Detroit District of Columbia Edmonton El Paso Florida Fort Lauderdale Fredericton - St John Fresno Georgia Grand Rapids Green Bay Guadalajara Halifax Hamilton Hartford Hawaii Honolulu Houston Idaho Illinois Indiana Indianapolis Iowa Jacksonville Kansas City Kentucky Kitchener KO/MO Las Vegas Lexington Lima Little Rock London Los Angeles Louisiana Louisville Madison Manchester Maryland Massachusetts Memphis Mexico Mexico City Miami Michigan Milwaukee Minneapolis-St Paul Minnesota Missouri Moncton Montana Monterrey Montevideo Montréal Nashville Nebraska Nevada New Brunswick New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New Orleans New York Newark North Carolina Oakland Ohio Oklahoma Oklahoma City Omaha Oregon Orlando Ottawa Panama Panama City Pennsylvania Peru Philadelphia Phoenix Pittsburgh Portland Porto Alegre Providence Puerto Rico Québec Raleigh-Durham Reno Rhode Island Richmond Rio De Janeiro Riverside Rochester Sacramento Salt Lake City San Antonio San Diego San Francisco Bay Area San Juan Santiago Sao Paulo Savannah Seattle South Carolina Springfield St Louis Syracuse Tallahassee Tampa Tennessee Texas Toledo Toronto Tucson Tulsa United States Uruguay Utah Vancouver Virginia Washington Washington DC Winnipeg Wisconsin

Innovation Cities Global Index 2012-2013

Cities Rankings, Cities Index, Cities Data USA Canada Europe Asia Africa Mid-East OceaniaCity innovation classifications and rankings, 2012-2013.

Measuring each cities potential as an innovation economy at the current time.  World’s largest city classification and global ranking with 445 benchmark cities classified, and top 133 cities analyst ranked this year.

Based on 2thinknow analyst interpretation of 162 city indicators from 2thinknow City Benchmarking Data set. Since 2007.

2012-13 INDEXES > TOP 100 | AMERICAS | EUROPE ASIA | EMERGING | GLOBAL | ALL YEARS

View current Media Release + Read the 2012-2013FAQ


Rank City State Country Region Sub Region Classification Index Score 1 Boston Massachusetts United States AMERICAS USA 1 NEXUS 57 1 New York New York United States AMERICAS USA 1 NEXUS 57 3 Vienna Austria EUROPE EUROPE 1 NEXUS 57 4 San Francisco Bay Area California United States AMERICAS USA 1 NEXUS 56 5 Paris France EUROPE EUROPE 1 NEXUS 56 6 Munich Germany EUROPE EUROPE 1 NEXUS 56 7 London United Kingdom EUROPE EUROPE 1 NEXUS 56 8 Copenhagen Denmark EUROPE EUROPE 1 NEXUS 55 9 Amsterdam Netherlands EUROPE EUROPE 1 NEXUS 55 10 Seattle Washington United States AMERICAS USA 1 NEXUS 54 11 Toronto Canada AMERICAS CANADA 1 NEXUS 54 12 Los Angeles California United States AMERICAS USA 1 NEXUS 54 13 Berlin Germany EUROPE EUROPE 1 NEXUS 54 14 Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong ASIA CHINA 1 NEXUS 54 15 Frankfurt Germany EUROPE EUROPE 1 NEXUS 54 16 Stockholm Sweden EUROPE EUROPE 1 NEXUS 53 17 Lyon France EUROPE EUROPE 1 NEXUS 53 18 Melbourne VIC Australia ASIA ANZ 1 NEXUS 52 19 Hamburg Germany EUROPE EUROPE 1 NEXUS 52 20 Sydney NSW Australia ASIA ANZ 1 NEXUS 52 21 Seoul Korea, South ASIA ASIA 1 NEXUS 52 22 Washington DC District of Columbia United States AMERICAS USA 1 NEXUS 52 23 Philadelphia Pennsylvania United States AMERICAS USA 1 NEXUS 52 24 Manchester United Kingdom EUROPE EUROPE 1 NEXUS 52 25 Tokyo Tokyo Japan ASIA JAPAN 1 NEXUS 52 26 Chicago Illinois United States AMERICAS USA 1 NEXUS 52 27 Stuttgart Germany EUROPE EUROPE 1 NEXUS 52 28 Tel Aviv Israel EUROPE MID-EAST 1 NEXUS 52 29 Shanghai Shanghai China ASIA CHINA 1 NEXUS 51 30 Singapore Singapore ASIA ASIA 1 NEXUS 51 31 Montreal Canada AMERICAS CANADA 1 NEXUS 50 32 Kyoto Kyoto Japan ASIA JAPAN 1 NEXUS 50 33 Brussels Belgium EUROPE EUROPE 1 NEXUS 50 34 Dubai United Arab Emirates EMERGING MID-EAST 1 NEXUS 50 35 Vancouver Canada AMERICAS CANADA 1 NEXUS 50 36 Helsinki Finland EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 49 37 Leipzig Germany EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 49 38 Oslo Norway EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 49 39 Dallas-Fort Worth Texas United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 49 40 Marseille France EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 49 41 Dusseldorf Germany EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 49 42 Strasbourg France EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 49 43 Austin Texas United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 49 44 Cologne Germany EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 49 45 The Hague Netherlands EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 49 46 Milan Italy EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 49 47 Osaka Osaka Japan ASIA JAPAN 2 HUB 49 48 Raleigh-Durham North Carolina United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 49 49 San Diego California United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 49 50 Orlando Florida United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 49 51 Portland Oregon United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 48 52 Minneapolis-St Paul Minnesota United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 48 53 Beijing Beijing China ASIA CHINA 2 HUB 48 54 Bordeaux France EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 48 55 Prague Czech Republic EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 48 56 Barcelona Spain EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 48 57 Denver Colorado United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 48 58 Budapest Hungary EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 48 59 Edinburgh United Kingdom EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 48 60 Houston Texas United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 48 61 Atlanta Georgia United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 48 62 Miami Florida United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 48 63 Toulouse France EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 47 64 Newark New Jersey United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 47 65 Baltimore Maryland United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 47 66 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia ASIA ASIA 2 HUB 47 67 Quebec Canada AMERICAS CANADA 2 HUB 47 68 Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates EMERGING MID-EAST 2 HUB 47 69 Rotterdam Netherlands EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 47 70 Dresden Germany EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 47 71 Shenzhen Guangdong China ASIA CHINA 2 HUB 47 72 Zurich Switzerland EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 47 73 Karlsruhe Germany EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 47 74 Moscow Russia EUROPE RUSSIA 2 HUB 47 75 Rome Italy EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 47 76 Hannover Germany EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 47 77 Santa Ana-Anaheim California United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 47 78 Nantes France EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 47 79 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 47 80 Kobe Hyogo Japan ASIA JAPAN 2 HUB 47 81 Kansas City KO/MO United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 47 82 Geneva Switzerland EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 47 83 Tampa Florida United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 47 84 St Petersburg Russia EUROPE RUSSIA 2 HUB 47 85 Brisbane QLD Australia ASIA ANZ 2 HUB 47 86 Montpellier France EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 46 87 Richmond Virginia United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 46 88 Torino Italy EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 46 89 Istanbul Turkey EUROPE MID-EAST 2 HUB 46 90 Ann Arbor Michigan United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 46 91 Auckland New Zealand ASIA ANZ 2 HUB 46 92 Glasgow United Kingdom EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 46 93 Mexico City Mexico AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 2 HUB 46 94 Madrid Spain EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 46 95 Taipei Taiwan, Province of China ASIA CHINA 2 HUB 46 96 Aachen Germany EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 46 97 Bangkok Thailand ASIA ASIA 2 HUB 46 98 Providence Rhode Island United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 46 99 Nice France EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 46 100 Mannheim-Heidelberg Germany EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 46 101 Nuremberg Germany EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 46 102 Essen Germany EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 46 103 Dortmund Germany EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 46 104 Antwerp Belgium EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 46 105 Bonn Germany EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 46 106 Manchester New Hampshire United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 46 107 Las Vegas Nevada United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 46 108 Mumbai Maharashtra India ASIA INDIA 2 HUB 46 109 Berkeley California United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 46 110 Tallahassee Florida United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 46 111 Bremen Germany EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 46 112 Fukuoka Fukoaka Japan ASIA JAPAN 2 HUB 46 113 Rochester New York United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 46 114 Jacksonville Florida United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 46 115 Lille France EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 45 116 Bilbao Spain EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 45 117 Wellington New Zealand ASIA ANZ 2 HUB 45 118 Sao Paulo Brazil AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 2 HUB 45 119 Cape Town South Africa EMERGING AFRICA 2 HUB 45 120 Belgrade Serbia EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 45 121 Ventura-Oxnard California United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 122 Linz Austria EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 45 123 Boulder Colorado United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 124 Edmonton Canada AMERICAS CANADA 2 HUB 45 125 Boise Idaho United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 126 Phoenix Arizona United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 127 Malmo Scania Sweden EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 45 128 Buffalo New York United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 129 Colorado Springs Colorado United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 130 Albany New York United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 131 Spokane Washington United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 132 Roanoke Virginia United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 133 Graz Austria EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 45 Bochum North Rhine-Westphalia Germany EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 45 San Antonio Texas United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 Des Moines Iowa United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 Memphis Tennessee United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 Nashville Tennessee United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 Calgary Alberta Canada AMERICAS CANADA 2 HUB 45 Charlottesville Virginia United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 Charlotte North Carolina United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 Kiel Germany EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 45 Jerusalem Israel EUROPE MID-EAST 2 HUB 45 Norfolk-Virginia Beach Virginia United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 Sacramento California United States AMERICAS USA 2 HUB 45 Hangzhou Zhejiang China ASIA CHINA 2 HUB 45 Luxembourg Luxembourg EUROPE EUROPE 2 HUB 45 Eindhoven North Brabant Netherlands EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 44 Reims France EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 44 Salt Lake City Utah United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 44 Odense Southern Denmark Denmark EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 44 Oklahoma City Oklahoma United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 44 Cleveland Ohio United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 44 Perth WA Australia ASIA ANZ 3 NODE 44 Birmingham Alabama United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 44 Milwaukee Wisconsin United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 44 Riverside California United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 44 Savannah Georgia United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 44 Incheon South Korea ASIA ASIA 3 NODE 44 Bristol United Kingdom EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 44 Liverpool United Kingdom EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 44 Duisburg North Rhine-Westphalia Germany EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 44 St Louis Missouri United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 44 Busan South Korea ASIA ASIA 3 NODE 44 Basel Switzerland EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 44 Nanjing Jiangsu China ASIA CHINA 3 NODE 44 Warsaw Poland EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 44 Rio De Janeiro Brazil AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 3 NODE 44 Oakland California United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 44 Fort Lauderdale Florida United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 44 Honolulu Hawaii United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 44 Rennes France EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 44 Dublin Ireland EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 44 Utrecht Netherlands EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 44 Leuven Flemish Brabant Belgium EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 43 Kingston-Upon-Hull United Kingdom EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 43 Lisbon Portugal EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 43 Oporto Portugal EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 43 Hartford Connecticut United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Springfield Massachusetts United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Bangalore Karnataka India ASIA INDIA 3 NODE 43 Stockton California United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Tucson Arizona United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Bakersfield California United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Fresno California United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Detroit Michigan United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Grand Rapids Michigan United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Rochester Minnesota United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Charleston South Carolina United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Green Bay Wisconsin United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Madison Wisconsin United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Corpus Christi Texas United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Nagoya Aichi Japan ASIA JAPAN 3 NODE 43 Yokohama Kanagawa Japan ASIA JAPAN 3 NODE 43 Changchun, Jilin Jilin China ASIA CHINA 3 NODE 43 Chengdu Sichuan China ASIA CHINA 3 NODE 43 Bern Switzerland EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 43 Lucerne Switzerland EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 43 Birmingham United Kingdom EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 43 Canberra ACT Australia ASIA ANZ 3 NODE 43 Adelaide SA Australia ASIA ANZ 3 NODE 43 Dalian Liaoning China ASIA CHINA 3 NODE 43 Kaohsiung Taiwan Taiwan (PRC) ASIA CHINA 3 NODE 43 Cannes France EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 43 Dijon Bourgogne  France EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 43 Rouen Haute-Normandie  France EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 43 Saint-Etienne Rhone-Alpes France EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 43 Yekaterinburg Sverdlovsk Oblast Russia EUROPE RUSSIA 3 NODE 43 Florence Italy EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 43 Syracuse New York United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Greensboro North Carolina United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Allentown Pennsylvania United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Wichita Kansas United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 43 Leeds United Kingdom EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 43 Cincinnati Ohio United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 42 Bridgeport Connecticut United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 42 Montgomery Alabama United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 42 Lancaster Pennsylvania United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 42 Le Havre Upper Normandy France EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 42 Gold Coast QLD Australia ASIA ANZ 3 NODE 42 Daegu South Korea ASIA ASIA 3 NODE 42 Ulsan South Korea ASIA ASIA 3 NODE 42 Wuhan Hubei China ASIA CHINA 3 NODE 42 Suzhou Jiangsu China ASIA CHINA 3 NODE 42 Tianjin Tianjin China ASIA CHINA 3 NODE 42 Hiroshima Japan ASIA JAPAN 3 NODE 42 Sapporo Hokkaido Japan ASIA JAPAN 3 NODE 42 Nagasaki Nagasaki Japan ASIA JAPAN 3 NODE 42 Salzburg Austria EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 42 Gent Belgium EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 42 Lisge Belgium EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 42 Gdansk Poland EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 42 Gothenburg Sweden EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 42 Belfast United Kingdom EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 42 Cardiff United Kingdom EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 42 Coventry United Kingdom EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 42 Kazan Tatarstan Russia EUROPE RUSSIA 3 NODE 42 Macau Macau China ASIA CHINA 3 NODE 42 Delhi Delhi India ASIA INDIA 3 NODE 42 Kiev Ukraine EMERGING EURASIA 3 NODE 42 Zagreb Croatia EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 42 Grenoble Rhone-Alpes France EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 42 Bath & NE Somerset United Kingdom EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 42 Lviv Lviv Oblast Ukraine EMERGING EURASIA 3 NODE 42 Buenos Aires Argentina AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 3 NODE 42 Venice Italy EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 42 Modesto California United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 42 Indianapolis Indiana United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 42 Dongguan Guangdong China ASIA CHINA 3 NODE 41 Ljubljana Slovenia EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 41 Novosibirsk Novosibirsk Oblast Russia EUROPE RUSSIA 3 NODE 41 Samara Samara Oblast Russia EUROPE RUSSIA 3 NODE 41 New Haven Connecticut United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 41 El Paso Texas United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 41 Augusta Georgia United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 41 Guangzhou Guangdong China ASIA CHINA 3 NODE 41 Daejeon Chungnam South Korea ASIA ASIA 3 NODE 41 Pune Maharashtra India ASIA INDIA 3 NODE 41 Chennai Chennai India ASIA INDIA 3 NODE 41 Metz Lorraine France EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 41 Sheffield Yorkshire United Kingdom EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 41 Bologna Italy EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 41 Parma Italy EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 41 Monterrey Mexico AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 3 NODE 41 Limoges Limousin France EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 41 Jeddah Saudi Arabia EMERGING MID-EAST 3 NODE 41 Springfield Illinois United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 41 Louisville Kentucky United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 41 New Orleans Louisiana United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 41 Columbus Ohio United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 41 Baton Rouge Louisiana United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 41 Doha Qatar EMERGING MID-EAST 3 NODE 41 Geelong VIC Australia ASIA ANZ 3 NODE 41 Bratislava Slovakia EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 41 Petaling Jaya Selangor Malaysia ASIA ASIA 3 NODE 40 Krasnoyarsk Krasnoyarsk Krai Russia EUROPE RUSSIA 3 NODE 40 Cedar Rapids Iowa United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 40 Omaha Nebraska United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 40 Albuquerque New Mexico United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 40 Toledo Ohio United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 40 Chattanooga Tennessee United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 40 Xiamen Fujian China ASIA CHINA 3 NODE 40 Hamilton Canada AMERICAS CANADA 3 NODE 40 Little Rock Arkansas United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 40 Winnipeg Canada AMERICAS CANADA 3 NODE 40 Halifax Canada AMERICAS CANADA 3 NODE 40 Ottawa Canada AMERICAS CANADA 3 NODE 40 Curitiba Brazil AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 3 NODE 40 Ballarat VIC Australia ASIA ANZ 3 NODE 40 Bendigo VIC Australia ASIA ANZ 3 NODE 40 Newcastle-upon-Tyne United Kingdom EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 40 Greenville South Carolina United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 40 Odessa Odessa Oblast Ukraine EMERGING EURASIA 3 NODE 40 Adana Adana Turkey EMERGING MID-EAST 3 NODE 40 Brasilia Brazil AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 3 NODE 40 Ankara Turkey EMERGING MID-EAST 3 NODE 40 Tallinn Estonia EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 40 Bucharest Romania EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 40 Malaga Spain EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 40 Pamplona Spain EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 40 Seville Spain EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 40 Valencia Spain EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 40 Kaliningrad Kaliningrad Oblast Russia EUROPE RUSSIA 3 NODE 40 Lexington Kentucky United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 40 Tulsa Oklahoma United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 40 Jackson Mississippi United States AMERICAS USA 3 NODE 40 Medellin Colombia AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 3 NODE 40 Verona Italy EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 40 Rostov-na-Donu Russia EUROPE RUSSIA 3 NODE 40 Riga Latvia EUROPE EUROPE 3 NODE 40 Shenyang Liaoning China ASIA CHINA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Zhuhai Guangdong China ASIA CHINA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Kitchener Canada AMERICAS CANADA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Springfield Missouri United States AMERICAS USA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Bozeman Montana United States AMERICAS USA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Reno Nevada United States AMERICAS USA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Fredericton – St John New Brunswick Canada AMERICAS CANADA 4 INFLUENCER 39 London Canada AMERICAS CANADA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Winston-Salem North Carolina United States AMERICAS USA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Knoxville Tennessee United States AMERICAS USA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Suwon Gyeonggi-do South Korea ASIA ASIA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Jakarta Indonesia ASIA ASIA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Panama City Panama AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Puebla Puebla Mexico AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Columbia South Carolina United States AMERICAS USA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Kharkov Kharkiv Oblast Ukraine EMERGING EURASIA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Trieste Italy EUROPE EUROPE 4 INFLUENCER 39 Padova Italy EUROPE EUROPE 4 INFLUENCER 39 Modena Italy EUROPE EUROPE 4 INFLUENCER 39 Athens Greece EUROPE EUROPE 4 INFLUENCER 39 Kuwait City Kuwait EMERGING MID-EAST 4 INFLUENCER 39 Hobart TAS Australia ASIA ANZ 4 INFLUENCER 39 Brno South Moravian Region Czech Republic EUROPE EUROPE 4 INFLUENCER 39 Vilnius Lithuania EUROPE EUROPE 4 INFLUENCER 39 Katowice Poland EUROPE EUROPE 4 INFLUENCER 39 Nizhny Novgorod Russia EUROPE RUSSIA 4 INFLUENCER 39 Reykjavik Iceland EUROPE EUROPE 4 INFLUENCER 39 Krakow Poland EUROPE EUROPE 4 INFLUENCER 39 Beirut Lebanon EMERGING MID-EAST 4 INFLUENCER 38 Moncton New Brunswick Canada AMERICAS CANADA 4 INFLUENCER 38 Anchorage Alaska United States AMERICAS USA 4 INFLUENCER 38 Akron Ohio United States AMERICAS USA 4 INFLUENCER 38 Queenstown New Zealand ASIA ANZ 4 INFLUENCER 38 Hyderabad Hyderabad India ASIA INDIA 4 INFLUENCER 38 Manila Philippines ASIA ASIA 4 INFLUENCER 38 Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam ASIA ASIA 4 INFLUENCER 38 Qingdao Shandong China ASIA CHINA 4 INFLUENCER 38 Durban South Africa EMERGING AFRICA 4 INFLUENCER 38 Izmir Turkey EMERGING MID-EAST 4 INFLUENCER 38 Perm Perm Krai Russia EUROPE RUSSIA 4 INFLUENCER 38 Saratov Saratov Oblast Russia EUROPE RUSSIA 4 INFLUENCER 38 Xi’an Shanxi China ASIA CHINA 4 INFLUENCER 38 Gijon Asturias Spain EUROPE EUROPE 4 INFLUENCER 38 Salvador Bahia Brazil AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 38 Cairo Egypt EMERGING MID-EAST 4 INFLUENCER 38 Dubrovnik Croatia EUROPE EUROPE 4 INFLUENCER 38 Sofia Bulgaria EUROPE EUROPE 4 INFLUENCER 38 Tomsk Tomsk Oblast Russia EUROPE RUSSIA 4 INFLUENCER 38 Kosice Slovakia EUROPE EUROPE 4 INFLUENCER 38 Newcastle NSW Australia ASIA ANZ 4 INFLUENCER 37 Christchurch New Zealand ASIA ANZ 4 INFLUENCER 37 Amman Jordan EMERGING MID-EAST 4 INFLUENCER 37 Chongqing Chongqing China ASIA CHINA 4 INFLUENCER 37 Dayton Ohio United States AMERICAS USA 4 INFLUENCER 37 Zhengzhou Henan China ASIA CHINA 4 INFLUENCER 37 Ahmedabad India ASIA INDIA 4 INFLUENCER 37 Harbin Heilongjiang China ASIA CHINA 4 INFLUENCER 37 Belo Horizonte Brazil AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 37 Recife Pernambuco Brazil AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 37 Vladivostok Primorsky Krai Russia EUROPE RUSSIA 4 INFLUENCER 37 Omsk Omsk Oblast Russia EUROPE RUSSIA 4 INFLUENCER 37 Donetsk Donetsk Oblast Ukraine EMERGING EURASIA 4 INFLUENCER 37 Sevastopol Sevastopol Ukraine EMERGING EURASIA 4 INFLUENCER 37 Colombo Western Province Sri Lanka ASIA ASIA 4 INFLUENCER 37 Casablanca Morocco EMERGING AFRICA 4 INFLUENCER 37 Chrisinau Moldova EUROPE EUROPE 4 INFLUENCER 37 Dnepropetrovsk Dnipropetrovsk Oblast Ukraine EMERGING EURASIA 4 INFLUENCER 37 Lincoln Nebraska United States AMERICAS USA 4 INFLUENCER 37 Bogota Colombia AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 37 Wollongong NSW Australia ASIA ANZ 4 INFLUENCER 37 Volgograd Volgograd Oblast Russia EUROPE RUSSIA 4 INFLUENCER 36 Pachuca Hidalgo Mexico AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 36 San Jose, Costa Rica Costa Rica AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 36 Simferopol Crimea Ukraine EMERGING EURASIA 4 INFLUENCER 36 Alexandria Egypt EMERGING MID-EAST 4 INFLUENCER 36 Muscat Oman EMERGING MID-EAST 4 INFLUENCER 36 Izhevsk Udmurt Republic Russia EUROPE RUSSIA 4 INFLUENCER 36 Hanoi Hanoi Vietnam ASIA ASIA 4 INFLUENCER 36 San Salvador El Salvador AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 36 Timisoara Romania EUROPE EUROPE 4 INFLUENCER 36 Thessaloniki Greece EUROPE EUROPE 4 INFLUENCER 36 Cordoba Argentina AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 36 Guadalajara Mexico AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 36 Baku Azerbaijan EMERGING EURASIA 4 INFLUENCER 36 Rabat Morocco EMERGING AFRICA 4 INFLUENCER 35 Barnaul Altai Krai Russia EUROPE RUSSIA 4 INFLUENCER 35 Orenburg Orenburg Oblast Russia EUROPE RUSSIA 4 INFLUENCER 35 Tolyatti Samara Oblast Russia EUROPE RUSSIA 4 INFLUENCER 35 Porto Alegre Brazil AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 35 Caracas Venezuela AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 35 Valparaiso Valparaiso Chile AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 35 Santo Domingo, DR Dominican Republic AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 4 INFLUENCER 35 Zaporozhye Zaporizhia Oblast Ukraine EMERGING EURASIA 4 INFLUENCER 35 Yantai-Weihai Shandong China ASIA CHINA 5 UPSTART 34 Riyadh Saudi Arabia EMERGING MID-EAST 5 UPSTART 34 Johannesburg South Africa EMERGING AFRICA 5 UPSTART 34 Surat Gujarat India ASIA INDIA 5 UPSTART 34 Lucknow Uttar Pradesh India ASIA INDIA 5 UPSTART 34 Dhaka Bangladesh ASIA ASIA 5 UPSTART 34 Quito Ecuador AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 5 UPSTART 34 Granada Spain EUROPE EUROPE 5 UPSTART 34 Santiago Chile AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 5 UPSTART 34 Kanpur Uttar Pradesh India ASIA INDIA 5 UPSTART 33 Jaipur Rajasthan India ASIA INDIA 5 UPSTART 33 Madurai Tamil Nadu India ASIA INDIA 5 UPSTART 33 Bursa, Turkey Bursa Turkey EMERGING MID-EAST 5 UPSTART 33 Lima Peru AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 5 UPSTART 33 Tirana Albania EUROPE EUROPE 5 UPSTART 33 Kolkata West Bengal India ASIA INDIA 5 UPSTART 32 Tbilisi Georgia EMERGING EURASIA 5 UPSTART 32 Montevideo Uruguay AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 5 UPSTART 31 Bandung West Java Indonesia ASIA ASIA 5 UPSTART 31 Chittagong Chittagong Bangladesh ASIA ASIA 5 UPSTART 31 Havana Havana Cuba AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA 5 UPSTART 31 Algiers Algeria EMERGING AFRICA 5 UPSTART 31 Phnom Penh, Cam Phnom Penh Cambodia ASIA ASIA 5 UPSTART 30 Addis Ababa Ethiopia EMERGING AFRICA 5 UPSTART 30 Tegucigalpa Honduras AMERICAS LATIN AMERICA – 29 Bishkek Kyrgyzstan EMERGING EURASIA – 29 Manama Bahrain EMERGING MID-EAST – 29 Skopje Macedonia EUROPE EUROPE – 29 San Juan Puerto Rico AMERICAS USA – 28 Almaty Kazakhstan EMERGING EURASIA – 28 Yangon Yangon Region Burma ASIA ASIA – 28 Karachi Pakistan EMERGING EURASIA – 28 Nairobi Kenya EMERGING AFRICA – 28 Dar es Salaam Tanzania EMERGING AFRICA – 28 Port Louis Mauritius EMERGING AFRICA – 27 Minsk Belarus EMERGING EURASIA – 27 Lahore Pakistan EMERGING EURASIA – 26 Luanda Angola EMERGING AFRICA – 26 Dakar Senegal EMERGING AFRICA – 26 Lagos Nigeria EMERGING AFRICA – 25 Kinshasa Democratic Republic of the Congo EMERGING AFRICA – 20 Kabul Kabul Afghanistan EMERGING EURASIA – 18

Innovation Classifications.

All cities are graded into award categories based on their band score. In descending order of importance to the innovation economy:

NEXUS: Critical nexus for multiple economic and social innovation segments

HUB: Dominance or influence on key economic and social innovation segments , based on global rends

NODE: Broad performance across many innovation segments, with key imbalances

INFLUENCER: Competitive in some segments, potential or imbalanced

UPSTART: Potential steps towards relative future performance in a few innovation segments.

Regional Classifications.

Regions are defined as follows:

AMERICAS: North and South America

EUROPE: The U.N. defined Europe with European union, Western Russia, Israel and some Turkish cities

ASIA: Asia and Oceania (Australia/NZ)

EMERGING: Mid-East, Africa, Turkey and Caucasus states.

There are further sub regions divisions since 2012, and the Index can also be analyzed this way.

Full details.

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The Index is the most comprehensive city ranking and scoring. Each city was selected from 1,540 cities based on basic factors of health, wealth, population, geography as well as potential relative to peers. The final 450 cities had data extracted the city benchmarking data program on 162 indicators, and this was reduced to 445 published cities. Each of the benchmarking data was scored by analysts using best available qualitative analysis and quantitative statistics (see City Benchmarking Data to purchase city data).

Underlying data was then balanced against current global trends, by analysts to form a simplified 3 factor score for Cultural Assets, Human Infrastructure and Networked Markets. For city classification, these scores were competitively graded into 5 bands (Nexus, Hub, Node, Influencer, Upstart) based on how broad based (multiple indicators) the city performance was.

The top 30% of cities in the Nexus and Hub were ranked by analysts based on comparison of current innovation potential.

From this global Index 4 regional indexes for Americas, Europe, Asia and Emerging are then also produced.

Please note the full list above is classified (Node, Influencer, Upstart) not ranked except where a rank is noted. Rankings are just for general information. A node ranking is considered globally competitive. More discussion and questions answered in this  FAQ.

For more details on methodology, please see the FAQ or order the Innovation Cities Analysis Report.

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About 2thinknow Innovation Cities™ Program.

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2thinknow have published the Innovation Cities™ Indexes city rankings free online since 2007.

This is now 445 cities in the 2012 year, and is the world’s largest and most diverse city ranking.

Contact 2thinknow here: http://www.innovation-cities.com/wp-content/uploads/Form-Innovation-Cities-2012-02.html or via twitter @2thinknow

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September 03 2012

Colombia: Guerrilla Group's Peace Negotiation Rap Video

The Colombian government has accepted the start of peace talks with the longest lived guerrilla group in Latin America, FARC (Colombian Revolutionary Armed Forces), and in response the group has released a musical rap video.

In the video, two revolutionaries wearing Che Guevara shirts accompanied by other guerrilla members playing musical instruments, rap about going to Havana, Cuba, to negotiate with the government, but not towards rendition. This is the first communication which has been released by FARC since the government's decision to go forth to the dialogue tables in Oslo and then Havana, to discuss the terms for peace.

The video, originally posted on the official FARC website, which has since been blocked, is accessible through the copy that Colombian radio channel La FM has uploaded. Lyrics can be found on the Uruguayan El Observador newspaper digital version, and Venezuelan media has also picked up the story, including a summary of FARC's history.

So far, not much can be found on Colombian mass media. Engolfados.com technology and information website wrote about the video in ‘FARC Video is all the rage on Internet':

La producción guerrillera fue posteada este lunes 3 de septiembre en el sitio web oficial de la guerrilla, justo una semana después de que se conocieran los acercamientos. No aparece en el cabezal de la página, ni en el recuadro superior derecho, donde suelen estar los partes de guerra o los comunicados. Hay que bajar casi hasta la mitad de la pantalla para encontrarlo. Lo titularon: Video por la paz.

The guerrilla's production was posted this Monday, September 3 on the guerrilla group's official website, just a week after the first steps towards peace talks. It doesn't show up on the page's header, nor in the upper righthand corner where the war reports or releases are usually placed. One has to go down almost to the middle of the screen to find it. It was called: Video for peace.

The lyrics from the El Observador Newspaper [es]:

Me voy para La Habana, esta vez a conversar
el burgués que nos buscabano nos pudo derrotar.
Me voy para La Habana, esta vez a conversar
con aquel que me acusaba de mentir sobre la paz.
Me voy para la Habana, supieran con qué emoción
me voy a conversar la suerte de mi nación.
A las FARC no nos vencieron porque hay un pueblo atrás.
Queremos que haya tierras para arar y ser normales.
Que se queden en la patria las riquezas naturales.
Poner freno al capital en su afán explotador.
Nuestros muertos van conmigo y el sentido del honor.
Ponte en pie mi pueblo amigo,
nunca habrá la rendición.

I'm going to Havana, this time to talk.
The bourgeoisie who was looking for us
was unable to defeat us.
I am going to Havana, this time to talk
with that one who acccused me of lying about peace.
I go to Havana, if you only knew my excitement.
I am going to discuss about the future of my nation.
FARC were not defeated because we have people behind us.
We want lands to farm and to be normal.
That the riches of the land stay inside our borders.
Stop the capital [city] in its exploring eagerness.
Our dead go with me and the sense of honor.
Stand up fellow friendly people,
there will never be rendition.

Comments on the video are rushing in. Many of them don't go beyond insults and critiques of the musical style, but others reflect a bit more. Some of those include this one by kamssun [es]:

Ese momento incómodo en el que te das cuenta que los guerrilleros, lejos de ser seres completamente malévolos, como nos los presentan los medios de comunicación, son más bien adolescentes despistados u.u

That uncomfortable moment when you realize that guerrilla members, far from being completely evil beings as the mass media shows them to us, are more like clueless teenagers. u.u

Jap0012 wrote as well [es], in response to violent reactions to the video and peace process:

que esten abriendo caminos para el dialogo demuestra que tienen intensiones [sic] para llegar a la paz, recuerde que esto es una guerra de colombianos contra colombianos y es algo terrible que aun despues de tanto tiempo tengamos tantas ganas de ver sangre.

That paths for dialogue are opening up shows that they have the intention of reaching peace, remember this is a war of Colombians against Colombians and it is terrible that even after all this time we are still so thirsty to see blood.

Kle0sify [es] said:

Es lo único que deberia hacer la guerrilla tratar de transmitir sus pensamientos de forma diferente, no matando,secuestrando,diciendo mentiras así hasta mas de uno acá sería guerrillero

It is the only thing the guerrillas should be doing, trying to transmit their thoughts in different ways, not by killing, kidnapping or telling lies so even people here would become guerrilla members
Colombian guerrillas sing rap inspired by forthcoming peace negotiations. Screencapture from video.

Colombian guerrillas sing rap inspired by forthcoming peace negotiations. Screencapture from video.

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